Khartoum is the capital and second largest city of Sudan. Divided by the Nile, Khartoum is a metropolis with an estimated overall population of more than five million people. Through the years it faced many humanitarian crises, including the 2015-2016 Khartoum water crisis.A brief history of KhartoumKhartoum was established 15 kilometers north of the ancient city of Soba, the former capital of the medieval Nubian kingdom. Originally, Khartoum served as an outpost for the Egyptian Army. It quickly grew into a regional center of trade, playing a significant role in the African slave trade. Later, it became the administrative center of Sudan and the country’s official capital.A siege of Khartoum was started by the Mahdi on 13 March 1884 and ended in a massacre of the Anglo-Egyptian rulers. The heavily damaged city fell to the Mahdists on 26 January 1885. As a result, all of its inhabitants were put to death. British forces under Herbert Kitchener defeated the Mahdist forces more than 14 years later on 2 September 1898. The defenders led by British General Charles George Gordon reclaimed the reign over Khartoum. Even when the British ended their occupation of Egypt in 1936, they maintained their forces in Khartoum. It was the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 which finally set a series of events in motion which would eventually end the British occupation of Khartoum and Sudan.